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THE mp\k\ MISSION 

AND THE 

OPEJSlH^C OF THE 

presbyteriap Qolleije 

re 
SAN FEHNANt)0, Tl^iniDflD. 

BY 

MARY ALICE CLARK. 



C9ttan>a : 

James Hope & Co., vStattom:rs and Printers. 

1892. 



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CANADA 



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PUBLIC ARCHIVES 
ARCHIVES PUBLIQUES 



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RECENT VISIT TO TRINIDAD, 



AND THE 



/ 
OPENING 



OF THE 



Pre5by(:eria9 Qollede 



IN 



SAN FEl^NAflDO. 

BY 

MARY ALICE CLARK. 



©tta»i»rt : 
James Hope & Co., Stationers and Printers. 

1892. 



TO THE READER. 



The following pages are intended to give a brief sketch 
of the Mission of the Presl:)yterian Church in Trini- 
dad. The object we have in view, is to deepen the 
interest of the Church, in the very successful mission, 
and at the same time to give information about the 
Island, in which their work is carried on. Any profits 
arising from the sale of this short treatise, will be 
applied for the l^enefit of the Mission. 

May the Head of the Church more and more count- 
enance the great work with His blessing. 

MARY ALICE CLARK. 

Ottawa, June, 1892. 



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C//) 



OUR RECENT YLSIT TO TRINIDAD 

AND THE 

Openins of tbe PresSyleriaii College in San Fernando, 



VOYAGE. 

God has graciously preserved us, and we desire to 
feel grateful to Hiin, who has so kindly watched over 
us both by sea and land. AVe are now in the home 
of our belo^ed JNIissionaries in San Fernando, Trini- 
dad, West Indies. To give you a brief account of 
our movements, let me go V)ack to the 23rd of Decem- 
ber, when we left New York in the S. 8. "Burnley," 
a line steel boat, built on the Clyde. The Pilot skil- 
fully guided us through the thick fog, and as we 
cautiously wended our way past the varied islands in 
the harljor, we sighted numbers of incoming and out- 
going ships and craft of every description and size. 
The " Burnley's " long, straight sides, and rounded 
bottom, promised that she would roll, and I may say, 
that the promise was faithfully kept. Captain Hand- 
slip is a very genial and pleasant man, and has l>een 
long a captain of large steamers. He carries in his 
pocket a tine gold watch, presented to him (as seen 
by the inscription), by the Emperor of Brazil, Dom- 
Pedro, recently deceased. We were sea sick for a 
day or two, but were told and encouraged, that we 
would feel like new people after it was over. We 
spent our Christmas day in our state room, and when 
the Steward brought in the bill of fare for 6 o'clock 



6 

dinner, it was very aggravating t(» veaA it down — 
roast turkey, roast beef, plum pudding, <kc., with a 
variety of fruits, and at last to have to decide on a 
cup of beef tea and dry toast. I managed to look 
out of my caV)in d(K»r and wish them all a " Merry 
Christmas, not that I felt very " merry " myself, but 
1 thought of the happy people on terra firirw; enjoy- 
ing the family circle, round their " ain tire sides." 
Mid- winter as it was, we congratulated ourselves that 
we were neai'ing the tropics without the need <jf 
" fiddles " on the dinner table. We had only one 
rough unpleasant night on our outward voyage ; one 
or two days the winds were fresh, and the waves were 
crested with white foam. The waves went down, 
and the ports were opened, and we had passed sud- 
denly irom winter into perpetual summer, and the 
salt water was warm in our morning bath. The pas- 
sengers lounge alx)ut the decks in their chairs, some 
reading and others talking. Mr. Clark was busily- 
engaged studying the Spanish language with a Span- 
ish Senor, from Caraccas. It was hard for me to 
know, which was the Professor and which the pupil, 
as one was just as eager to learn the English as the 
other the Spanish. Another three days and we are 
in the tropics. The Xorth-east trade wind blew be- 
hind us. The first light we made was on Sombrero, 
the first of the Leeward Islands. We sailed very 
near to the islands of Eustachins, Mai'tinifiue, Anti- 
gua, and St. Kitts, each island as large as, or larger 
than the Isle of Man. The most of these islands 
have lofty peaks, as if thrown up by volcanic action. 
They are clothed from base to summit with forest 
trees, with deep ravines, and fringed with luxuriant 
plains. We sighted the Island of Nevis, and we 
were much interested in looking at the island on 



wliicli the great Nelson got his wife, Francis Herbei-t 
Nisbet, on the 11th March, 1787. This ishind ap- 
peared to be a conical mountain, jising nearly ,S,OOU 
feet al^o^■e the level (»f the sea. Here we are sailing 
ciniong the Antilles —the Anterior Isles — which lie 
like a string of emeralds round the neck of the Carib- 
bean Sea, and during the wai-s of the last century, 
were the ol)jects of a never-ceasing conflict between 
the French and English. April 12th, 17«^'2, was a 
memorable day in the English Empire. The West 
Indies were then under the charge of Admiral Rod- 
ney, in H. 31. 8. ••Formidable.'' The rock is still 
shown from which Admiral l^odney watched day by 
day the movements of the French tleet under De 
(xrasse. We were part of a day passing the Grena- 
dines, a string of small islands, fitting into their 
proper place in the Antilles semicircle, but as if na- 
ture had fr)rgotten to put them together, or else had 
broken some large islands to pieces, and scattered 
them along the line. Here we have a stiff bree'/«\ 
and the sea white with short curling waves, but we 
were rui^.ning l)ef(»re it, and the wind kept the deck 
fresh. We had a little excitement on seeing the 
Flying Fish f<jr the first time, but they were as soon 
as plentiful as robins in June. The sea is an extra- 
ordinary blue, — it looks to me sometimes a peacock 
blue. Again a deep violet color, the shadow and 
intensity of the light varying the shades, but not 
the color, and fr>r hours we stand watching the ship 
plough through the great sapphire shades, into which 
the sea has turned. The flaming, tropical sunset at 
sea, is a gorgeous sight, the lijveliness of which I can- 
not now take time to describe. Grenada is the next 
island ; we are to go on shore. It is larger than 8t. 
Vincent ; was taken by the English at the peace of 



8 

Versailles. The especial value of Grenada, which 
made the English fight so hard to win it, is the deep 
land-locked harbor, the finest in all the Antilles. If 
Baibadoes had such an harbor, it would be an island 
without a rival in the world. St. (Jeorge's, the capi- 
tal, stands on the neck of a peninsula, a mile in 
length, which forms one side of the harbor. After 
sunrise, on the 1st January, 1892, we were anchored 
in the harbor, and the island of Grenada lay before 
us, shining in the haze of a hot summer morning, 
and as we wished our fellow-passengers " A Happy 
New Year," we thought of our Canadian friends, 
repeating the same good wishes, in a cooler atmos- 
phere. From the deck of the steamer, this lovely 
island reminded me of views I had seen of Norway ; 
the houses and stores, built of stone and brick, 
stretching along tlie shore, painted in the same tints, 
with the same red tiled roofs, the trees growing down 
the hill sides to the water's edge, with the neat cot- 
tages and churches nestled amidst them. On three 
sides, wooded hills rose high, till they passed into 
mountains. On the fourth was the old Castle, with 
its slopes and batteries, the Scotch church, the Angli- 
con church, Wesley an, and Roman Catholic. Every- 
where luxuriant tropical trees, overhanging the violet 
coloured water. Two of Her Majesty's ships of war, 
the "Canada'" and "Buzzard," were anchored in the 
harbor, not far fr<^ra us, the only objects in sight thao 
reminded me of my old home. After breakfast on 
board, we di-essed in the thinnest clothing possible, 
f(jr our first step on one of the West India islands. 
After the harbor master had come to visit us, and 
we were reported "all well," and our Royal Mail 
taken on shore, then we see the crowd of boats, 
painted in bright shades of every hue, round the 



ladder ; the clam<iur of negro mens' tongues is very 
confusing. No sooner are we seen, than every boat- 
man gesticulates at us, and beseeches us, to hire him 
to take us ashore. We may give no sign, but each 
goes through the pantomime of making beUeve that 
we have singled him out particularly for our favor, 
-calling out : " Dis yo' boat. Sir ! Dis one fo' the 
P Ave rend Minister ! We, Sir, be tankful fo' vo' 
pa iiage ! " Once on shore, our minds are filled with 
new impressions. All that I saw was absolutely new 
And unexpected. As it was a public holiday, the 
town was all astir — the blaze of color from the negro 
woman's dresses (you rarely see a white woman). 
Some of the women and children struck me especi- 
ally. They were smartly dressed in white calico, 
scrupulously clean, and tricked out with bright 
ribands and feathers, and they carried themselves so 
well and gracefully. Like the old Greeks, they are 
trained from childhood to carry heavy burdens on 
their heads ; they are thus perfectly upright, and 
plant their feet firmly and naturally on the ground. 
Some had brought in baskets, or large wooden trays, 
which they carried on their heads, containing fowls 
and vegetables, bananas, oranges, and sticks of sugar 
cane, and others had yams, sweet potatoes, nutmegs, 
and other spices, from their bits of garden in the 
country. The men were active enough, driving carts, 
with donkeys and mules, bringing luggage ashore, etc. 
W^e saw a number of the English people and their 
families, leaving the Quay, in large pleasure boats, 
probably going to visit their friends on New Years 
day. Boats were flying to and fro under sail or with 
oars ; oflicials coming off in white linen suits, with 
awnings over the boats. Notwithstanding these 
tropical features, it was all thoroughly English, and 



10 

we were under the guns of our own men-of-war. We 
crept along in the shade of trees and warehouses, till 
we reached the principal street. We were directed 
up a steep narrow street, to the Reverend James 
Rae's " Manse". On each side of us were the lovely 
palms, almond trees, .and many more which I could 
not name ; })retty gardens, with the bright hibiscus, 
and pure white jessamine, which scented the air with 
sweet perfume. I was presented with a bunch of 
them, on the road side, and that was my first New 
Year's gift in the ti'opics. We wej'e soon at the 
" Manse ", and were very cordially welcomed by the 
Rev. and Mrs. Rae, and were soon at his hospitable 
table, i)artaking of a second breakfast. The custom 
in the West Indies is, coffee between 6 and 7 a.m., 
and breakfast alx)ut 10, dinnei- at 4 or 6 p.m., and 
tea in the early evening. As the Rev. Mr. Rae had 
an engagement to baptise a child in his church, we 
all went to the Scotch church, and found a coloured 
party and little baby in waiting, and it was at once 
arranged that Mr. Clark should conduct the baptis- 
mal service. As they are fond of long names, this 
little dusky one was no exception, and was called, 
James, vSandford, Alexander Burke. We then pro- 
ceeded to the old Fort, famous in years gone })y, and 
on which the British Hag was flying, as when Ad- 
mirals Nelson, Rodney, and others were carrying on 
their wars here against the French. The Sergeant- 
Major (strange to say, a native of Halifax, N. 8.),^ 
invited us to visit the Barrack -roouis of a troop of 
native soldiers, who are listed for three years. These 
rooms were very cleanly kept, and we were pleased 
to see a f.air rea(iing room, with the leading foreign 
papers and magazines. We then went up to the light- 
house, and had a magnificent view of the island, and 



11 

the sinuosities along the shore. The heat was oppres- 
sive, being 88' in the shade, and had it not been for 
the fresh breezes from the sea, we w(-uld have found 
the steep liills of Grenada very fatiguing. We re- 
turned to the "Manse" and spent a few hours in 
pleasant conversation, from which we gained much 
information aV)out Grenada, its people and its produc- 
tions. We had letters of introduction t(j the agents 

of the " Burnley ', and at 4 p. m. Mr. D very 

kindly called, with his carriage, to give us a drive. 
Tlie road, when we left the town, was overshadowed 
with gigantic mango trees, planted long ago. Some 
of the old stone residences that had once belonged to 
English merchants, looked old and dilapidated, but 
the luxuriant bananas and orange trees in the gard- 
ens relieved the ugliness of their appearance. After 
spending a most delightful day in Grenada, we bade 
(►ui' friends good bye, and we were soon on our vvay 
to Trinidad, nbout 88 miles distant, where we arrived 
safely the next morning, January 2nd. We had to 
land in a small boat, as the steamer must anchor 
aV)out one and a-half miles from the shore, as the 
water in the Gulf of Paria is very shoal neai- the 
land. However, we were at Port of Spain, our lug- 
gage through the customs, and were off in the 1 1 a.m. 
train for San Fernando. 



San Fernando. 

The railwaN folhnvs the nK>del of the British car- 
riages in the old country. On our route, we passed 
through large j)lantati<^>ns of sugar cane, almost ready 
t<» be cut down. The soil is remarkal)ly fertile; coffee 



12 

is cultivated to some extent, beskles tobacco, corn, 
cocoanuts, and cacao. The train nacljefl San Fern- 
ando at ^ p.m., a diHtance of 37 miles. We received 
a ri<.dit hearty welcome from our friends, Rev. K. J. 
(jtrant, and s<m, Mr. (leddes Grant, waitin<; nur ar- 
rival at the station. We were (juickly driven thn»Ui,di 
the business town of Han Fei-nando, ajid were soon 
at his uni(jue and comfortable '* Manse", where we 
were warmly received Vjy Mrs. Grant and their 
dau^^diter, Claudia, about 1.3 years of age. A son 
and daughter were al»sent from home, attending 
College in Nova Scotia. For information, T may state 
here, that in Oct<»ber, 1870, the Rev. K. J. Grant 
and his family were sent from Nova Scotia, by the 
Presbyterian Church, as Missionaries to the Huidus 
in Trinidad. The Rev. Dr. Morton having preceded 
him in the Mission about tw^o vears,-and was laboui- 
inj' in the Tere section. Tn the course of a veai', 
after Mr. (Jrant came, the Rev. J. Morton wishtnl to 
reside in San Fernando, on account of the indisprisi- 
ti<m of Mrs. Morton ; and while (-ariying on his 
special woik in lere, co-operated with Mr. (J rant in 
San Fei'nando ; and such were the advatices made, 
that in less than two years, the Susainachar church 
(which signifies the Good News, or the Church of the 
Gospel) was erected in San Fernando. Tlie Piast In- 
dians themselves, composed of Mahonnnedans and 
worshi])e»'s (»f Idols, for then there were few Christ- 
ians, contiibuted about .£150 sterling. This work 
has, by the blessing of ilcnX, so increased unrlei' the 
imlefatigable labors of Rev. K. J. (irant and his native 
converts for the past "20 years, that the memlx'rshi}) 
of the church, at this date, is nearly 300; the numbei* 
baptized in the name of the tiiune (lod, is nearly 
1500, and the amount raised in this section for religi- 



13 

ou.s purpoiscs, supporting the pastor, and repairin<? the 
church, scho<»l-houscr., etc., for the year li<\)[ just 
closed, was ."$ISOO. The bell in the fSusainachai church 
was presented hy the late Mr. Turnhull, of Scotland, 
who formerly resided in Trinidad, and had a large 
sugar estate. The church is capable of containing 
four hundred people. It has a neat tower on each 
of the front c<jrners, and a gothic entrvmce, over 
which is printed "The church of the living God," in 
Hindi characters, on the glass window, over the 
church door ; the whole structure a gem of neatness, 
and with thorough ventilation, a great necessity in 
this warm climate. The church is on an elevated 
site, with a nun) her of concrete steps, leading down 
to Cotiee Street. The handsome ircm gate anil 
columns at the main entrance, on this street, were 
the gift of one of Mr. Grant's East Indian young 
men, who having l)een started in life hy him, in giv- 
ing him useful knowledge, ttxjk this means of showing 
his gratitude to one to whtmi he owed so much. One- 
third of the population of Trinidad are East Indian 
emigrants, alxiut 70,000, brought thither by the 
Government, and indentured to the planters of the 
sugar and cacao estates, foi* a term i)f five years. 
They are the chief lal)ourers, h.aving Vjeen found to 
work at a much clieaper rate than the negroes. 
These labourers aie colloquially termed coolies, while 
they are in the service of the planters, though this 
term " coolie " is not relished by the East Indians 
thenjselvc^s. To these our dear Missionaries were 
sent, to unfold unto them the love of Jesus and the 
way of Salvation through Him. The "Manse" is 
situated about forty feet from the church ; it is l)uilt 
of concrete, is veiy neat and suit ible for a tropical 
crlinuite, the object being to keep out the sun and let 



u 

in the wind. Venetian jalousies are placed in the 
sides of the windows, instead of glass, which can lie 
closed or opened at pleasure. The rooms look so C(X>1, 
with light polished wood floors, little or no carpets in 
the bedrooms, and contrivances of all kinds to keep 
the air in continual circulation. We would not mind 
the heat so much, if the artful mosquitoes would 
allow us an hour or two, to pen our thoughts to 
paper. We are protected from them all night Iw a 
mosquito netting round the bed, and I wish T could 
sit under the same while I write. We had been 
warned to look out for scorpions, centipedes, jiggers, 
and other things. Of these I met with none, but the 
mosquito of Trinidad is enough by himself. The air 
is warmer than we ever feel it, in the extreme heat 
of a Canadian summer ; yet pure and delicious, and 
filled with the perfume of many flowers. Near the 
" Manse " and church, is the new college building, in 
Shady Grove, recently erected for the training of the 
Hindus, to preach the Gospel to their own country- 
men in Trinidad. It is a commodious building, built 
of wood of the best quality. It is raised some four 
feet from the ground, is supported by concrete pil- 
lars. There are entrances at the front and rear, 
and on one side, with steps of the same material. 
It is oriental in style, with ornate eaves, or "hoods", 
which improves the appearance of the building, and 
protects those within its wails from the hot rays of 
the tropical sun. With the exception of one or two 
glass windows, the doors and windows are largely of 
jalousie lattice, and other open work. The large 
room is divided off, for the classes, with cedar screens 
of lattice work. The roofs of all these buildings are 
galvanized iron. The funds for this college were 
mostly raised by gift; of generous doners in Ontario, 



15 

by collections and donations in the Lower Provinces, 
and special mention ought to be made of the generous 
donations from the Woman's Foreign Missionary- 
society of the Eastern Division. Then, beyond the 
college is '\ house, which was on the ground when it 
was bougiit, but is being enlarged and renovated, to 
be a home for the resident professor, and for the 
-Students, who shall attend this Institution. At the 
rear of the " Manse " and church, is the house of the 
native assistant. Rev. Lal-Bihari, and family, and 
the school-house for Hindi children, who are taught 
by an efficient lady teacher, Miss Kirkpatrick, from 
Nova Scotia, aided by four or five assistants. This 
school is noted for the excellent instruction it has 
given since its organization. All these buildings are 
together in one compound, but I must not forget to 
add the pretty little "Cedar Cottage", that in the 
early days of the Mission, was the manse, and it is 
now occupied by Mrs. Merriman, the granddaughter 
of the late Dr. McCulloch, who is now visiting Trin- 
idad for her health. Many a pleasant gathering have 
we had in her parlor, with Mi-s. Grant's young wom- 
ans' sewing class, such as sewing garments for the 
mission under her superintendance. Mrs. Grant has 
evidently done her dnty, in preparing these East 
Indian girls for usefulnees, as the wives of teachers, 
or of young men in good situations, or in whatever 
position God may cast their lot. We visited a num- 
ber of them in their pleasant homes, and heard the 
children play and sing very nicely. Natural kindli- 
ness, heartfelt desire to please, seem characteristic of 
all the East Indian people. What kindly inventive- 
ness is displayed in contriving surprises for one, or 
in finding some rare fiower to show you, or some queer 
spider or insect, a scorpion or a centipede held up to 



16 

view, on the end oi the tongs, which was quite near 
enough. The large grounds round the manse and 
college, are shaded and adorned by cocoanut palms, 
bread-fruit trees, tamarind, orange, citron, malacca 
apple, ground-nut, sour-sop, bananas, sapodilla, and 
many others I cannot call by name. Plants and 
flowers, with which one is familiar in conservatories, 
are here expanded into forest giants, as the cactus 
hedge, and the double hibiscus, crimson, the single 
pink and fawn colour ; each cluster of double flowers 
is from twelve to fourteen inches round. 



The First Sabbath in Trinidad. 

Sabbath, January 3rd, was a very interesting one 
to us in San Fernando. In the early morning, Rev. 
K. J. Grant and his assistant, Rev. Lal-Bihari, went 
out about three miles from the Ctentral Station, and 
conducted service in Hindostani, and a similar 
service in the hospital, a few miles distant. At 1 1 
a.m., the service was held at the central church. We 
were present, and will not soon forget the original 
Hindi hymns. They sang with a weird but solemn 
cadence ; they all appeared to be very attentive and 
devout. The congregation was composed of about 
150 Hindus, within reach of the church. They were 
clothed chiefly in the peculiar garb of India — the 
veil (Orhrnee), the petticoat (Ehanghera), and bodice 
(Jullah), in many brilliant colours. Some of the 
women had a large number of silver bracelets and 
armlets on their arms ; ear and nose rings, orna,- 
ments for the hair, necklaces, and bangles for the 
ankles. Before the close of the service, Rev. G. M. 



17 

Clark was requested to address them, wliich was 
quickly interpreted int(» Hindustani, by one of the 
many clever scholars; afterwards they were asked to 
express their welcome to us, in coming so far to see 
tliem, and to bid them God speed. To our surprise, 
they all rose .and made their salaams to us, and we 
received them, as their unanimous and hearty wel- 
come. Then they were ijivited to come forward and 
be introduced to us by name, we both shaking hands 
with them individually. It was a scene which moved 
us very much. The Sabbath-school was held in the 
afternoon, composed of the young Hindus and 
Chinese, in all about 210, under twenty or more 
intelligent native teachers. After the International 
lesson for the day, several were examined on review 
of the lesson for 1891. As an example, I may tell 
you of five little girls, Hindus and Chinese, repeating 
distinctly the 52 titles and Golden Texts of the les- 
sons, in English, without missing a word, which was 
truly, no small efiort for little ones under nine yeai-a 
of age. I think some of our Sabijath-schools in 
Canada will have to study the Lessons Vjetter, or they 
cannot crnnpete with these dark -eyed, smiling faces 
of the Hindi. A number of young men in the Bible- 
class were examined in the " Shorter Catechism ". 
Answers were given to the most difficult questions, 
in a clear and intelligent manner, without an error, 
e<iual, if not superior to any such examination we 
have ever heard. Mr. Grant and his assistant were 
again off to hold services in two other estates, four 
or five miles distant. Mr. Clark conducted the even- 
ing service in English, in the Susamachar church, to 
a very attentive, and it may be said, a better educat- 
ed aSvsemljly of Asiatics, as they have l)een trained 
in the Mission schools. The Managing Committee, 



18 

witli tlie exception of Mr. (reddes Grant, consists of 
xVsiatics, who conduct all the outward affairs oi the 
church with aVjility, and in a thorou*(h l)usiness-like 
wav. Thus endeil our tirst Sabbath in Fernando, 
and may say, never did we spend a more interesting 
day, as we observed tlie wonderful changes (jikI has 
wroufjlit in the hist 2o years, throu,i;h tlie very <^arnest 
and indefati^^^able efforts of our bel<)ved Missionaries. 
We hope to see their work more in detail, nr we visit 
the varied scliool-houses in which the voun*' East 
Indians are receiving a very thorough educatitm. 
Quite a nunibei* of them are employed as interpreters 
to the different courts, and in the Government, and 
Pt)St Ofhce ; also, occupied as book-keepers, salesmen, 
and writers in lawyers' ofhces. I^ut the chief aim 
is that thev mav be humble, devoted Cliristians, 
which very many of them appear to be. It is very 
interesting to n(»tice the great influence jNIr. and Mrs. 
Grant have among these people, who come from far 
and near, fc^r their advice and counsel, under every 
conceivable circumstance, in sickness and health. 
The study seems to be a consulting room, from morn- 
ing till night. - 



Trinidad. 

This lovely island of Trinidad, discovered by Christ- 
opher Columbus <m July 31st, 1498, is situated about 
10" north of the Equator, in the southern part of the 
Caribbean 8ea; is only separated from the coast of 
South America by the Gulf of Paria. Trinidad is the 
largest island after Jamaica of the British West In- 
dies, being about 55 miles long and 40 broad, wdth 



19 

an area of l,7r)0 square miles. Four hundred years 
ago Columbus discovered America, getting his tirst 
kM)k of this Western world bv j^azing on San Sal- 
vador. On his third voyage he was delighted by 
l(M)king on three peaks of Moruga in verdant loveli- 
ness, and observing that these tlu'ee peaks rose from 
one base ; the thought of the Trinity was suggested 
to his mind ; he termed this lovely island, Trinidad. 
This island n(»w contains the homes of nearlv 200,- 
000 people, who have been drawn to it fi'om many 
lands. The soil is remarkably fertile, and indeed 
it may be said that upon its agriculture the future 
of the island mainly depends. Sugar (including rum 
and molasses) and cacao, are considered to be the 
st.aples of the colony. The forests abound in 
valuable hard wofxi trees, having a very fine grain, 
and are capable of a brilliant polish. Trinidad 
contains more varieties of birds than any other island 
in the West Indies. Myriads of fire flies sparkle 
here and there in the darkness of e\'ening. Butter- 
flies and moths of large size and lesplenclent beauty 
are frequently seen. We tasted many varieties of 
salt water tish, some of which are very delicate eat- 
ing, such as the King-fish, Spanish mackeral, mullet, 
etc. The dry season, January, February, antl March, 
are delightful m(mths in Trinidad, the temperature 
ranging from 70^ to 89 ^ The heat sometimes would 
be unbearable, if it were not for the fresh trade- 
wind, blowing all the time from the north-east. The 
hot westerly winds, coming off the coast of South 
America, they consider very unhealthy. June, July, 
and August, are the months of intense heat, and 
heavy rain. They have no experience of spring, 
autumn, or winter ; throughout the year it is one 
continual round of glorious sunnner brightness. But 



20 

we miss the pleasant twilight time, nor do we get 
the summer evenings ; the time of sunset varies only 
to the extent of one hour, being from 5:30 to 6:30, 
and as soon as the last gleam of sunlight disappears 
below the horizon, night is swiftly on us. The even- 
ings and early mornings are delightfully cool. Here, 
if anywhere, the old maxim is kept : " Early to bed, 
and early to rise". We seldom go out in the middle 
of the day, but take a walk or drive from 4 to 6 p.m. 
The air is so warm, we do not need any extra wrap 
in the evenings. One afternoon we visited a large 
sugar estate, " La Fortunee ", belonging to Messrs. 
Tennant, of Edinburgh. In the usine, where the 
sugar is manufactured, by extensive machinery, we 
saw the cane from the fields converted into sparkling 
golden sugar, ready for the London and American 
markets. 



Princestown. 

It is a very pleasant drive to Princestown, about 
eight miles from San Fernando. En loute we passed 
large sugar estates, antl a number of villages, namely 
Cocoye Mount Stewart, Palmyra, and lere, in the 
last named, our Trinidad ]Mission was commenced, a 
quarter of a century ago, by Rev. Dr. Morton, now 
stationed in Tunapuna. We drove past the dwelling- 
places of the East Indian and Creoles. Their cabins 
are built of bam])00, thatched with palm leaves. The 
more free the passage given to the air under the floor, 
and through the side, the more healthy the habita- 
tion. A roof which will keep the rain out is all that 
is needed. They are overhung with bread-fruit trees, 



21 

mango, and calabash trees, out of which they make 
their cups and water jugs : plantains throw their 
cool shade over the doors ; oranges and limes per- 
fume the air, and droop their boughs under the 
weight of their golden burdens. There are yams 
and sweet potatoes in the gardens ; cows and donkeys 
in the paddocks. The bright colours and graceful 
drapery, worn by the women of India, make the 
whole surroundings very picturesque. We were 
kindly received at the " Manse ", by the Rev. W. L. 
Macrae, who had invited us to spend a few days with 
him and his dear little John, a bright intelligent boy. 
The " Manse " is large and airy, with shades to keep 
out the sun. The first noticeable feature about the 
place, is its neatly trimmed hedge of croton and 
catcus. Around the " Manse " are fine old trees. A 
large orange tree, loaded with luscious fruit, was very 
near our bed-room window; and next to it, an old 
lime tree, the stem and branches of which were hung 
with orchids ; they had probably been collected in 
the woods. Princestown is considered the prettiest 
little village, or town, in Trinidad. It was originally 
known as the Mission, but from the time of the visit 
of the two sons of H. R. H. the Prince of Wales, in 
January, 1889, the name, in compliment to them, has 
been changed to that it now bears. In the pretty 
church yard, are two thriving young pouis trees, 
planted by the princes, and enclosed, in 1887, within 
iron railings, in commemoration of Her Majesty's 
Jubilee. As we gazed upon these trees, full of life, 
we thought of the hand that planted one of them, 
now still in death, over whom the nation is i.ow 
mourning. Several friends called to see us, and 
kindly asked us to 5-o'clock tea. We had an opp<3r- 
tunity of walking in their pretty grounds and lawns, 



99 



and lfK>king at the fragrant lilies, the purple Drac- 
aena ; and what is this, which hangs over into the 
road? some thirteen feet in height, long, bare, curv^- 
ing sticks, carrying each at its end a flat blaze of 
scarlet leaves. It is the Poinsettea, paltry specimens 
of which adorn our conservatories. In company with 
Mr. Macrae, and his Catechist, Mr. Soudeen, we 
visited a number of Mission schools, Jordan Hill, 
Lingua, and Inverness, and were highly delighted 
with the progress made by the Indian children. We 
took our lunch in pic-nic style, of roast chicken, good 
bread, oranges and Vjananas, with a delicious cup of 
coffee (the mixture was prepared by a firm in Truro, 
Nova Scotia), the boiling water was kindly l^rought 
to us by Mehindebeg, a Christian now, formerly a 
Mahommedan of high caste. Another day we visited 
Miss Archibald's schfX)l, which is near the Mission 
church and "Manse", in Princestown. AVe found 
her school with an attendance of over 150 pupils, 
taught by herself and three or four assistants. We 
were much interested in hearing them read and recite 
in English and Hindi, and singing sacred hynms in 
both languages ; the boys and girls read very dis- 
tinctly in English. They answer very readily ques- 
tions in grammar, geography, and arithmetic, and we 
wondered at the progress made in view of the diffi- 
culty in securing their regular attendance. Each 
scholar leaving the school, received from Miss Archi- 
bald a prize, which kind friends in Nova Scotia and 
Cape Breton had contri])uted. Could I describe the 
joyful faces of the little girls, as they each received a 
doll (some of them never having had a doll l)efore), 
and the boy's bright eyes were beaming with delight, 
as they got their books, and cases, containing pens 
and pencils. Could the Mission Bands of Canada 



23 

and elsewhere have looked on, it would have en- 
couraged them more and more in their ijjof)d work, 
and lead them to resolve to be more in earnest 
in gathei-ing suitable rewards, for regular attendance, 
and success in studies. 



The College. 

The second of Febi-uary, ^"^92, the "Presbyterian 
College of Trinidad '' was foiinally opened, in San 
Fernando. The exercises were of a most interesting 
kind. The Presbytery of Trinidad, with a large 
congregation of Hindus, met in the College in the 
afternoon, and 36 intelligent East Indian young 
men were enrolled as students. Mr. Paul Bhukhan, 
one of the catechists, then presented a vote of thanks 
to the Missionaries, who had labored so long and so 
faithfully among the Indian people ; to the Canadian 
church, which had sent them, and to all the friends 
of tlie Mission, who had contributed so freely to its 
support, and to the erection of the College. The 
motion was most cordially supported by all the Asi- 
atics who were present. In the evening, the College 
was packed to overflowing by the leading people in 
the island; seated on the platform, were merchants, 
doctors, lawyers, and clergymen. After singing 
the 100th Psalm and the reading of the 35th chaj^ter 
of Isaiah, and a very earnest prayer, chiefly of 
thanksgiving, by Mr. Grant, he narrated the steps 
leading to the erection of the edifice. The chair was 
taken by His Worship, W. Sloane Robertsf>n, Mayor 
of San Fernando, who is ever ready and willing to 
help in every way the work of the Mission. I am 



24 

sure those interested ii the Mission will he glad to 
read Rev. K. J. Grant's and His \V<jrship the Mayor's 
speeches, as reported in the Gazette, as follows : — 

Mr. Grant then proceeded to trace the successive steps which 
led up to the happy circumstances under which the meeting was 
convened. He stated : No church can expect any great success 
that has to rely upon an imported ministry. The Canadian Mis- 
sionaries who labour amongst the East Indians in this colony are 
deeply impressed with this conviction. They believe that God 
has a work for them to do in this mission that at the present 
stage could not be very well carried out by the native agents, 
and yet they are as deeply convinced that no great results will 
be acheived without the co-operation of faithful converts, howe- 
ver humble, who are taught of (iod. Consequently, at an early 
stage, such men were selected, and instructed as the missionaries 
had opportunity to give instruction. Of course much depended 
on the personal application and consecration of the individual. 
A few made good progress, and they nt^w occupy places of use- 
fulness, being held in honour Ijy their countrymen, and two have 
been set apart, by ordination, to the office of ministry. 

But "the King's business requireth haste." Through the 
kindness and liberality of all our leading sugar proprietors, se- 
conded by the (iovernment, our Indian schools now number 
fifty. By means of these a primary education is brought within 
the reach of a very large proportion of our East Indian popula- 
tion. These efforts to educate the young, render it increasingly 
imperative that our evangelists should be well instructed, that 
they may be qualified to teach others who are rapidly growing 
in knowledge. 

To provide the necessary facilities to meet these requirements 
has been to the Missionaries a matter of deep concern. To 
provide suitable premises with equipments called for an outlay 
that they were not prej^are to meet. \'iriou?. i>roposals were 
made to meet the exigencies, and at that stage, i8 months ago, 
accompanied by my family, I went on leave to Canada. Hav- 
ing the privilege of addressing the General Assembly at Ottawa, 
I stated the case as it presented itself to my mind, and appealed 
for aid, asking $4,000. Within forty-eight hours I received two 
donations, each $1,000. It was my good fortune to have been 
the guest of Mr. and Mrs. Clark, who are on the platform with 
us to-night, and to whom we are indebted for our first donation; 
and when we remember in entering on new enterprises how 



25 

much depends on a good start, it is hardly over-estimating their 
liberality, and that of the saintly old lady that gave a similarly 
lil)eral donation, to say that to them we are indebted at this 
•early day for our new premises. Donation after donation fol- 
lowed, and to date our scheme has received not only the $4,000 
but upwards of $5,000, and if this large and influt- ntial meeting 
should place in the plate to-night about £$0, or if not to-night, 
checiues, bank notes or donations in any form, to-morrow, it 
would enable us to declare that we have oj^ened shop with our- 
stock-in-trade unencumbered. Pray don't think me ungrateful. 
To some of you we are indebted for your gifts and are thankful. 
I may name His Worship the Mayor and Mrs. John 
Drennan. I can't enumerate all our donors. That col- 
lection of new books (pointing to a book case), costing ^^15, is 
the gift of Cieorge Ooodwille, Es(|uire, Port -of- Spain. In fur 
nishing for the students quarters, we are indebted to Dr. Morton 
for nearly an equal amount. It is only the other day that I 
received one of the most pleasantly written little epistles that 
has come to my hand with an order for /^2<) in aid. Mr. Ed- 
ward Tennant, son of Sir Charles, was the writer. 

One pleasing feature of the whole movement is the interest 
taken in it by the P^ast Indians themselves. One of their num- 
ber, Mr. Alljert Sammy, whose services were g^ven to this buil- 
ding continuously for five months, without any charge, was to- 
day presented with that bookcase which contains, in 30 volumes, 
an American edition of the Enryclopa-dia Britanni a, from the 
Foreign Mission Board of our Church, and he in turn for three 
years leaves it within these walls for the benefit of the Institution. 
Contributions have been sent in, not only by the Indian congre- 
gation of this town, l)ut also from Tunajnma, Princes Town and 
Couva. 

This afternoon this Institution was formally declared opened 
by the J'res])ytery of Trinidad, and the teaching staff designated. 
Dr. Morton, who will be President, to teach two days weekly ; 
Mr. Coffin one day ; myself two days, and Babu Lai Bihari at 
intervals. Our subjects are quite distinct, so that one need not 
encroach on the work of another. When we turn our eyes to 
the ponderous tomes that you see on yonder shelves, the wisdom 
of ap[)ointing a native of India, himself l)rought up in early 
years at the feet of a pandit, well versed in the lore of these 
books, will meet your approval. 

We would be modest, and yet it is not improl)able that this 
Institution will, for a time at least, do service for Colonies 
other than Trinidad. We have given men to a very interesting 



26 

Mission in Cirenada under the Rev, Mr. Rae ; we have a branch 
Mission in St. Lucia under Mr. Jas. Cropper, v hich an ordained 
Indian this week goes forward to visit ; and within a week, I 
had an intimitation from a Presl)yterian Minister in Demerara, 
that he is sending up a Christian helper to this school for higher 
instruction. Speaking as a Presbyterian, it would appear as if 
Trinidad were to be for a time a recognized centre, and glad 
would I be, as almost a son of the soil, if we could he useful to 
the regions beyond. I can almost anticipate the time when 
from this western abode a company taught of Ciod may be sent 
back to carry to the place of their nativity in the East, the riches 
better than gold acquired here — even the blessing of our Lord 
and Saviour Jesus Christ. (Apjilause. ) 

The Rev. Dr. ^[orton then addressed the meeting, and' 
called upon His Worship the Mayor to take the chair. Mr. - 
Robertson, said the speaker, was ever ready and willing to help 
in every way the work of this Mission. The speaker tlen paid; 
r. compliment to His Worship on the improvement which had 
been made in Coffee street just in front of the building in which 
they were assembled that night. 

His Worship the Mayor took the chair and, addressing the- 
meeting, said ; In response to an invitation of the Mission 
Council to preside on this occasion, I have much pleasure in 
taking the chair, and I feel it is a high compliment indeed to 
preside at such a large, influential and respectable a gathering 
as that assembled here this evening, composed as it is of all 
classes and of members of nearly all denominations in this town. 
I think this fact alone bears ample testimony to the interest that 
is taken generally by the community in the work of the Canadian 
Mission, and particularly of that section of it with which Mr. 
Grant has been connected for the last 20 odd years. (Apj)lause.) 
To-day he has had the satisfaction of seeing favourably opened 
the Training College for the native teachers that he has been 
so long striving to accomplish and bring into working shape, 
and we must congratulate him and the whole Mission on the 
success that has so far attended these labors, for I feel sure that 
he must have had many an anxious hour before he saw his way 
to get the funds necessary to enable him to undertake the 
erection of this building. Thanks, however, to the kindness of 
generous friends he has been able to do so. It is in a measure to 
celebrate the completion and opening of this institution in a 
more general and less formal way than has already been done 
that, I take it, we are assembled here this evening, and I am 
pleased to see that the meeting is such a large one. When,, 



27 

however I look around and see such a formidable array of cleri- 
cal friends, several of whom are to address us this evening, it 
makes me feel rather diffident in giving expression to any oi my 
views, as I feel it is not to listen to anything that I have to say 
that so many are present, but to hear frcjm these clerical friends 
what they have to tell us, and especially, I should think, those 
from outside the Colony, such as our friend the Kevd. Mr. 
Clark, of Ottawa, who is here at present on a visit to Mr. Orant, 
and who I know takes a lively and personal interest in the work 
of this Mission. (Applause. ) However, placed as I am in the 
chair on this interesting occasion, do not think it would iie right 
of me to sit down without saying a wcjrd or two regarding the 
work of the Canadian Mission generally, and particularly as 
regards the share that Mr. Grant has had in it during the time 
that his lot has been cast amongst us. Coming here, as I have 
already stated, something over 20 years ago — I remember well 
the very day that Mr. and Mrs. Grant arrived in Trinidad, I 
happened to be in Port-of-Spain that day and came down with 
them by steamer to San Fernando — Mr. Grant has been since 
then actively engaged in the work among the East Indians — in 
fact Dr. Morton and he were the pioneers of the Mission of the 
Canadian Church to the East Indians in this island — and I feel 
confident in saying that, so fara?> Mr. Grant's work is concerned, 
no one in this community who has watched what has been going 
on will gainsay that this work has been eminently successful. 
Of course the other sections of the Mission have also no doubt 
met with very marked success, but of them I am not in a posi- 
tion to speak, as I am not so intimately acquainted with their 
work as I am with Mr. Grant's. That of course, is natural, as 
being settled in our midst we see from year to year the success 
that has attended Mr. Grant's labors, and one very visible sign 
of that success is the very handsome building next to this — I 
mean the Susamachar Church — and connected therewith a very 
large and appreciative congregation, composed principally of 
East Indians and Chinese, most of them trained in his own 
schools and all more or less contributing liberally to the support 
of this their own church. In evidence of this we have only to 
turn to Mr. Grant's report for the past year in which you will 
see it stated that this church contributed $1,474.62 and the out- 
stations $392.45 — in all $1,797.07, surely a very gratifying and 
tangible sign of the interest taken by the members in their 
church and in Mr. Grant's work among them. Regarding the 
building in which we are this evening met, it is, I understand, 
to be used in future as the I'resbyterian College — antl a very 



28 

nice building it ic -and seems to be well suited for the purpose. 
The Inaugurati'^.; oi" this building I take as another sign of the 
vitality of the work in which Mr. (irant has been engaged, and 
I have no doubt under his able direction and control, and with 
the assistance of the other members of the Canadian Mission 
will soon be sending out many native evangelists to assist and 
continue the good work that has been so long carried on l)y Mr. 
Grant and those associated with him. That this is a stej^ in the 
right direction, I do not think any one will doulst, and with the 
thorough and conscientious training that these teachers are sure 
to get in this institution I feel that they will go out among their 
countrymen well armed and equipped for the work ; and if Mr. 
Grant can only succeed in infusing into them some of his own 
earnestness and enthusiasm there is little doubt that they will, 
under God's blessing, accomplish much good among their coun- 
trymen, and lead many of them to give up their superstitions and 
embrace the light and truth of the Living Gospel. (Applause). 
In connection with the Mission work ir. this town, there is also 
a large and eminently successful day school, where the children 
are being taught not only the truths of Christianity but ilso 
getting a good sound education : and that the school is doing 
an immense amount of good among the young people I am sure 
few will dispute. Look in San Fernando alone, there is scarcely 
a business house in the town but has one or 'more young East 
Indians employed (applause), and thoroughly exemplary and reli- 
able clerks they make ; and I have little doubt will also make 
good and intelligent citizens. (Applause.) There is also the 
Sabl)ath school to notice, which is evidently doing a vast amount 
of good, judging !"rom the interc> hat is taken in it, as I see 
from Mr. Cirant's report that there were 211 scholars present on 
the last Sabbath of the year and that he had 24 young men in 
his own class. There were about 21 teachers, half of whom had 
been present every Sabbath in the year — very satisfactory results 
I think ; results that we must admit xMr. (irant has every reason 
to be proud of. I wish also to bring to your notice, in connection 
with the work here, a very valuable institution that was 
started some four years ago — I mean the F'enny Saving's Bank. 
It, too, has been a wonderful success as you will be able to 
judge when I state that at the 31st December last year there 
were 280 accounts open ; that during the year 6,442 transac- 
tions took place: 5,252 deposits and 1,190 withdrawals — a- 
mounting to $3,192.66 deposits, and $3,463.09 withdrawals 
— showing a turnover of $6,655.75 ; and there is now in the 
Government vSavings" Bank, on behalf of thedepositors $1,008.04. 



29 

Since the bank wos started the total number of transactions have 
been: deposits 21,851, am( unting to $9,107,44; withdrawals 
2,732, amounting io $8,099 40 — total transactions 24,583, 
amounting to $17,206 84— demonstrating surely, that this 
institution is quietly and unobtrusively doing some good among 
the people here generally — (or the ilej ositors are not confined to 
East Indians alone — in inducing them to put a little aside for a 
rainy day, and in a way inculcating habits of thrift and saving 
which, in this community especially, is so much to be desired. 
This work is more specially under the direction of Mr. Geddes 
Grant, who is ably assisted by several of the young men connected 
with the Mission, and by two or three others from outside, but as 
treasurer, Mr. Geddes (irant gets the bulk of the work thrown 
on his shoulders, and that it entails a lot of labor and the sacri- 
fice of a great deal of time, you can easily imagine from the 
figures I have already placed before you. In this connection I 
would say, as President of the Bank, that the work is getting too 
heavy for those now carrying it on — the transactions on a single 
evening at times having amounted to over 250 — and further 
assistance is urgently required ; and if any of the young men 
here this evening who have an hour or two to spare during the 
week will only come foreward and lend their assistance they 
will be engaging in a good work and have the satisfaction of 
feeling that they were doing something for the benefit of those 
among whom they live. (Applause.) Now all this work in San 
Fernando is carried on more or less under Mr. Grant's care and 
supervision ; but do not for a moment imagine that this is the 
measure and extent of the work in which he is engaged — oh no ; 
just look around on the estates and see the number of schools 
there are carried on under his direction. It would take more 
time than I care to detain you to mention them all, and to go 
into details of the other labours in which he is engaged outside 
of the town. Suffice it to say that the proprietors of the sugar 
estates around evidently feel and know that he is doing a good 
work that is of l>enefit to their people on these estates, as eviden- 
ced by the liberal support that the Mission receives from nearly 
all of them for the support of schools, etc. Referring again to 
Mr. Grant's rei)ort I see that there were open 17 schools with 
44 teachers and assistants, with a roll of 891, of whom 619 were 
boys and 272 girls — having a daily average attendance of 609. 
Surely this is very gratifying evidence of the success that is 
attending Mr. Grant's lai^ors in this direction. We must not 
forget, too, that in all this good work Mr. Grant has had an able 
and willing helper in his good wife, especially in her relations to 



30 

the women who, in their own position and duties, are keeping 
pace with their husbands and brothers. (Applause.) Looking at 
the whole work even on the lowest grounds, I say surely the 
community is deriving a great deal of benefit from it in the 
education and enlightenment that is being spread among them ; 
and if such is the case, is it not our duly, as a community, to 
assist and encourage in every way we possibly can the good 
work of the Canadian Mission ? Those people are brought here 
for the purpose of tilling our lands and are necessary for the 
agricultural development of the island, and surely there is a 
duty to them beyond the mere carrying out of the agreement to 
pay them so much for their laljour, a duty that entails on us the 
necessity as far as lies in our power of not allowing them to 
return to their native land without offering them some of the 
advantages we possess. (Applause.) There has been a lot of con- 
troversy lately in some of the English papers as to the good that 
is being done by Missions in the East, and much has been said 
to try and bring Missionary effort into disrepute, as not being 
worth the money that is spent on it. I do not wish to express 
any opinion on the matter, but this I know, that, so far as this 
Mission is concerned, we have only to look at what is taking 
place in our mids.. to see that this Nlission is a success and giving 
ample testimoney to the fact that the seed sown here is bearing 
good fruit. (Applause.) We are not all born to be Missionaries, 
like Mr. Gran, but each and all of us, especially those who 
have had the benfit of early Christian training, can to some 
extent show those people, by our conduct and actions, that 
Christianity with us is not merely a name, but a living principle 
guiding all our actions, whether in the field, the store, the 
counting house, or in our own homes. I am confident that I 
only express the earnest hope and desire of all present this 
evening that Mr. Grant and those associated with him will be 
long spared to carry on the good work in which they are enga- 
ged, and that the Canadian Mission here may enjoy continued 
■prosperity. 

The Rev. Dr. Morton, addressing the meeting, 
said : " On an occasi<jn such as this, I always think 
of those who are no longer with us, but who con- 
tributed their share t<.) the work that has been done. 
When in Canada, two years ago, I came across, 
in the Recoixls of the Foi'eign Mission Committee, 



31 

the first written suggestions thcat looked towards 
this College. They were drawn up by the Rev. 
T. Christie, who for ten years laboured in Couva 
when there was neither railroad, nor macadamized 
roads, and his remains sleep in California, United 
States, and those of Mrs. Christie in Canada. For 
five years Kev. J. W. Macle<Kl worked faithfully at 
Princestown, and Imilt the church there. AVe con- 
secratod our ij^raveyard at Tunapuna by laying his 
body in the tirst grave. Mrs. Macle(xl is buried at 
Truro, N. S. Miss Archibald rests in the graveyard 
in San Fernando, and Mrs. Macrae, at Princestown, 
These have all been called away, while we have l)een 
spared ; let us not this night forget their work. Rev. 
Mr. Wright, who built the church at Couva, left his 
child buried there. We have buried our dead in 
every district, and throughout these years, Mr. Grant 
and myself have been spared. There is no credit to 
us in that. God called the others ; He spared us to 
see the College open this day, and to Him be the 
thanksgiving and praise. With life and health 
granted us, it would have been disgraceful had we 
forsaken the work. But it is well for us all, to re- 
cognize that this work does not depend on Mr. Grant 
and myself. We are more men of the past than of 
the future. The men of the future are Messrs. 
Macrae, Coffin, and Thompson, behind me on th(? 
platform, and Lal-Bihari, Ragbir, Sooden, and other 
East Indians in the audience before me. More and 
more must we give place to those men ; and you must 
receive them and cheer them on as God's agents for 
carrying forward the work, which we were permitted 
to begin, and in which we w^ere for a time aided and 
cheered". After the other speeches were over, the 
Rev. Mr. Grant proposed a vote of thanks to the 



32 

chairman, wliich was received with loud applause. 
His Worship replied, and after singing hymn 494, 
*' (><kI lie with you till we meet again , and the pro- 
nouncing of the Benediction by the Rev. G. M. 
Clark, the meeting was brought to a close at 10 p.m. 
We felt it to be a pleasure indeed to \ye present at 
the opening of the College, certainly an epoch in the 
history of our Mission ; and to all interested in the 
cause, it was felt to be a "red letter day". If those 
who speak coldly of the results of Foreign Missions, 
could only have seen, with their own eyes, the trans- 
formation so speedily wrought, and have heard with 
their own ears, the appreciative words in which the 
labour of our Missionaries were enthusiastically com- 
mended, there would be found at home a moi'e wide- 
spread and abiding interest in a work, the full issue 
of which, eternity alone shall reveal. 



Hindi Literature. 

Reference was made in one of the addresses, to the 
volumes of immense size, in the College liV)rary, to 
justify the wisdom of the Mission Council in appoint- 
ing Rev. Lal-Bihari, as one of the instructors in 
Hindi literature. The absurdities in these books 
taught in India, will be seen at a glance by the fol- 
lowing examples : The largest volumn is the " M dia- 
bharat", which contains in its several parts, 6,704 
pages, each page twenty eight lines, and each line 
averaging ten words, aggregating at least 1,877,120 
words, whilst our scriptures contain 773,746 words. 
Tlie name signifies a great battle, and the story covera 
an eighteen days' tight Vjetween two rival families,, 



33 

ill tlu' viciiiitv <»t' Delhi. Five Ijrothers conteii(le<I 
with 100 brothers, ami l)ecuuse Krishna, the eighth 
Tnearnatiou of Vishnu, fought with the five, they 
came off victorious. Another vohnnn was the Bal- 
miki llama van, which contains ahout 003,000 words, 
a little less than our Bihle. The design of the book 
is to glorify Kama, the seventh Incarnati«)n of the 
god Vishnu, who is the second of the Hindi trio. A 
third, Sukhsagar, e(jual to the Ramayan in size, is a 
Hindi translation of the much prized book, in San- 
scrit, the lihagawat, so sacred, that the simple hear- 
ing of its words, is a guai-antee f(»r admission to the 
ocean of happiness, as the name Sukh-8agar signifies, 
A fourth is called the Del)e-Bhagawat, in which the 
goddess Debi, it extolled and represented as the 
mother of the Hindi trio, Brahma, Vishnu, and 
Shiva. The collection contains several other l)ooks 
of less dimensions than those named. T believe it is 
not intended to go into any very minute examination 
of these books, and yet it appears to be important 
that young men preparing to preach the Gospel, and 
refute objectors, who di-aw theii" arguments from 
these sources, should themselves, in order to reply 
skilfully, know something of these volinnes ; hence 
Mr, Lal-Bihari, who had special advantages as a 
youth, will open up this class <:>f literature in a general 
way. 



A Cacao Estate. 

As kind friends had invited us to visit their Cacao 
estate near the Montserrat Hills, we returned to 
Princestown by the Cipero tramway, which took us 
through eight miles of sugar estates. Rev. Mr. 



34 

Macrae was on hand to meet us. Thanks to the kind 
hearted Mr. H. B. Darling, who made a gift to our 
Mission, of a large part of his beautifully situated 
property for the "Manse", and the adjoining build- 
ings and grounds. Though an Episcopalian he has 
ever shown the deepest interest in our Missionaries. 
We feel very grateful to Mr. Darling and the Doctor 
for their kindness to us, and we will not forget the 
many enjoyable drives, in the large comfortable 
*' Victoria", and the exquisitely arranged flowers he 
sent in to us during our stay. At 7 a.m., a party 
of us stiirted foi- the Cacao plantation, and driving 
along through the charming country, we were de- 
lighted with the towering palms, the silk cotton tree 
(Cei})a), and other trees. In the distance were the 
very picturesque hills, ablaze with scarlet blossoms of 
the great "bois immortelles". We travelled on, and 
were atti-act«d by the fine buildings on the " New 
Grant " sugar estate. Passing out of the estates, we 
drove through groves of majestic trees, still rising to 
a higher altitude. The Government has gravelled 
the roads at a great expense, as the gravel had to be 
brought from a great distance. Mr. and Mrs. Palmer 
were in waiting, at their neat cedar cottage, and gave 
us a hearty Scotch welcome. Among the friends at 
the West Indian breakfast, at 11 a.m., were Mrs. 
Morton, Mr. Macrae, Mr. Soudeen, and Mr. Warner, 
the warden of this section of Trinidad. The con- 
versation was exceedingly racy, and fraught with 
much infoi'mation about the fauna of the island. 
Having enjoyed a good piece of deer meat, at break- 
fast, and a cup of delicious coffee, that grew on the 
estate, we walked over to the Cacao estate. The tropical 
sun was hot on the road, but when we entered among 
the Cacao trees, and the wonderful shade trees, the 



4 

"bois immortelles", we were shaded and comparat- 
ively cool. These high trees, with wide spreading 
branches, have been provided to shade the young 
cacoa trees, and their roots supply moisture during 
the height of the dry season. We were much in- 
terested in noticing the growth of the Cacao, much 
like medium sized apple trees. The blossom and pod 
were growing on the same tree. A singular feature 
about these pods, they grow out, and are attached to 
the trunk, as well as the branches of the trees ; some 
of them are eight or ten inches long, and six inches 
round. The varied foliage of the trees, the bright 
yellow, green, and crimson pods, the towering " bois 
immortelles" with their brilliant blossoms, and the 
bright blue sky shining between, is very striking to 
the unfamiliar eye. The greatest hindrance to the 
successful cultivation of the valuable Cacao, is the 
parasol ants, which are only destroyed at groat ex- 
pense and labor, by digging deep holes around their 
bills ; they fill these with water, and destroy them 
by myriiitls. After the pods are opened, the beans 
are dried, and made ready for market, to be sent to 
Great Britain and America, and prepared l)y Epp, 
Cadbury, and Mott. Very luscious oranges grow in 
Princestown. A large quantity were plucked from 
the trees in the garden. Only those who have eaten 
oranges freshly plucked from the tree, know what 
the real flavour of an orange is. 



Port of Spain. 

Leaving San Fernando in the train, for a visit to 
Port of Spain, the Capital, situated on the shores of 
the Gulf of Paria, about two miles from the mouth 
of the Caroni river, and one of the tinest cities in 



the West Indies. It has a mixed populatiim of 
50,000, composed of British, Spanish, French, 
Chinese, African, Asiatics, and Creoles. At Mara- 
bella junction, the Rev. A Ramsay gave us a sur- 
prise, instejid of meeting "us at the Quay", as 
promised in his genial invitation. After going 
through 37 miles of beautiful scenery, we arrived at 
the Capital, and were driven to St. Ann's Free 
Church "Manse", where Mrs. Ramsay was waiting 
our arrival at the door. Scotch friends came in to 
meet us that evening, and the hours went rapidly, 
reciting the "Cottar's Saturday Night", and other 
national poems, which transported all, to their "ain 
countrie", though far away from the land of the 
heather. We were informed the next day, that the 
two days preceding Ash Wednesday, were devoted to 
King Carnival, by the Roman Catholics, mastjuerading 
and tomfoolery being the order of the day. We took 
a tram-car, and went round the city to see the sights, 
but we were glad to return, for the Creoles and 
rowdies take the advantage of the privilege of mask- 
ing and speaking to every one they may meet on the 
street. The better class of Spaniards and French 
dress themselves in fantastic costumes, and ride or 
drive about, visiting their friends. The custom is 
gradually dying out. The City is flat, with broad 
level streets, laid out with mathematical precision, 
and kept very clean, having well-formed concrete 
gutters in every street, down which the tropical 
rains flow with great force. But I must not forget 
to mention, the natural scavenger, the black glossy 
corbeaux or vulture, to be seen in the middle of the 
street, gobbling up any refuse they can find ; more 
useful than ornamental. Here and there are beauti- 
ful residences, in cool gardens of palms and lovely 



37 

flowering trees. The road round the Savanna is 
called "The Circular", and it is much frej^uented by 
those who like a drive after the heat of the day. 
The northern bend of the Queen's Pai'k, brings you 
to the Governor's residence, and the Botanical Gard- 
ens. The house, a palatial edifice, designed on 
Indian model, and built of native limestone, was 
erected at a cost of =£45,000. The Botanic Gardens! 
wlio can describe them? Here are gathered the 
principal plants of the tropical world. Under the 
guidance (^f the learned Superintendent, who took 
great pleasure in describing to us the peculiar qual- 
ities of the many strange trees and plants, all so new 
to us, he pointed out, the Palmyra palm, used by the 
orientals for making fans, baskets, etc. ; the Talipot 
palm, used for making books. In the Palm walk 
are to be seen a number of Australian and Indian 
palms. Here is the Saponaria or soap tree, and the 
Chinese wax tree ; one oi the seeds gathered fresh 
from the tree, will burn readily with a bright white 
light, till it is consumed. Near the large gate is a 
very tine Eucalyptus, with a trunk measureing more 
than thirtv feet in diameter ; and the giant bamboo 
and the striped l)amboo, both lieing natives of India. 
A gigantic Portugal laurel, throwing out a flower 
direct fi-om the stem, like a cactus. Grandest among 
them all, and hap])ily in full bhwm, was the sacred 
tree of Burmah, at a distance like a s})lendi(l horse- 
chestnut, wit; large crimsom blossoms in pendant 
bunches. There stood an enormous ceiba, or silk 
cotton tree, umbrella shaped, the boughs twisting in 
and out till they made a roof over one's head, which 
was hung with every variety of parasites. The 
Ceilja is the sacred tree of the negro ; the tem- 
ple of Jumbi the proper home of Obe.ah. No negro 



38 

woukl wound even the bark. Here the ground is 
covered with the Nux Vomica ; we gatliered some of 
the grey satin seeds. The nutmegs had a glen all to 
themselves, and perfumed the surounding air. Take 
one, and the thick green case splits in equal halves, 
at a touch ; see the beautiful heart within, deep dark 
glossy brown, all wrapped in a bright network of flat 
red fibre, spun over it like branching veins, after- 
wards changing to yellow, and known as mace. Now 
we have entered the Nursery Grounds, containing 
many different varieties of coiFee plants and cacao, 
the tea plant, the camphor, cinnamon and clove trees. 
What is that palm bearing its fruit at the base of the 
trunk? That is the ivory palm ; the hard white 
material supplies the world with buttons and handles. 
The grandest of all is the broad fan-shaped Travel- 
lei's' palm, thirty feet high ; make an incision in one 
of the fronds, and take a draught of cool water. 
Among the wonders of the gardens, are the vines or 
creepers that climb about the other trees, at particu- 
lar times of the year. The tig vine throws out ten- 
drils that liang down like strings. The time was far 
too short for us to see all, in this wonderland, ct)n- 
taining 90 acres. We took a hasty glance at the 
Electric eel, and entered the carriage kindly sent f<jr 
us from "Errol House", which is beautifully situated 
at the foot of the mountains, and is indeed a charm- 
ing residence. Every where you see palms, in all 
stages of development. Palms border the garden 
walk ; they are grouped in exquisite poise about the 
basins of fountains. At the gate we entered, stood, 
like stately sentinels, a superb pair of majestic, cab- 
bage palms, their long silver-grey trunks, with deep 
green plume-tufted summits, reached nearly a hundi'ed 
feet in altitude. Wide steps, lined with vases of rare 



39 

begonias of every hue, leaci up to a West Indian re- 
ception room, shaded and cool, with polished and 
richly carpeted floors, ornamental palms and ferns 
growing about the galleries and dining room. A 
large lawn, with beds of roses and a spraying foun- 
tain — beautiful — it was beyond dispute. At mo- 
ments one can fancy that the world is an enchanted 
place after all. 



Tranquillity ''Manse". 

Having heartily enjoyed our sojourn in "St. AnneV, 
Ave left on the kind in^ itation of our old friend, Rev. 
E. A. McCurdy, for Tranquillity, meet name for the 
residents of the amiable pastor of Grey friars church, 
and his worthy wife, herself the daughter of a clergy- 
man, and their kind and thoughtful son. The arch- 
itecture of the tine new "Manse" might be descriljed 
as of Swiss design, made suitable for the tropics. 
Eaves are developed into verandah roofs, and porches 
prolonged and lengthened into galleries, both front 
and back, and approached by a broad flight of steps. 
These admii-ably ventilated rooms ; these latticed 
wind(»ws, opening to the ceiling, are devised to keep 
out the heat and let in the air. Many of the varied 
crotons, with numerous ornamental shrubs, surround 
the garden. Every morning Cinderella would take 
great delight arranging the double and single hibis- 
cus, crimson, pink, and fawn colour, and bunches of 
the tasselated red hiljiscus, with the sweet-scented, 
double-white jessamine. The many delightful drives 
to<^k us past charming villas, and palatial suburl)aa 
mansions, wide-spreading Savannas with mammoth 



40 

trees aiul tine specimens of the Cannon-ball trees. We 
wheel into a road that leads to the \ery romantic 
]Mai'aval river. Nature and art have combined to 
make tliis spot a little paradise. The smo(^)th white 
road curves round the slope of a forest-covered moun- 
tain, sometimes overlooking a \alley shining with 
different shades of surface green We pass under- 
neath marvellous natural arcades, f(ji-med by the 
interweavins; and intercrossinj; of bamboos 80 feet 
high. Rising in vast clumps, and spreading out from 
the soil towards the sky, the curres of their beauti- 
ful jointed stems meet at such perfect angles, above 
the way and on either side of it, as to imitate almost 
exactly the elaborate Gothic arch- work of old abbey 
cloisters. Aiborescent ferns of unfamiliar elegance 
curve up from the path or river-brink. Here rustic 
bridges span the ferny dells of the ^laraval, and lead 
us to a miniature lake, whose crystal waters reilect 
the graceful trees and shrubs that hang over it. The 
slender, ijracefullv arched bamluxjs, manv-hued cro- 
tons, fragrant t)leaiiders, and slender ferns, surr<;>und- 
ing the reservoir of l)right clear water, coml)ine to 
make a scene that is most striking. Great credit is 
given to the keeper of the watei' works, who is an 
old warrior, wearing the Crimean medal, hailing from 
the Emerald Tsle. We had the ])leasure of meeting 
a number of the excellent people of Grey-friars 
church, and will not soon forget th»^ir Christian hos- 
pitality and intercourse. Special mention should be 
made of their interest in the Presbyterian Colleye, 
San Fernando, when on hearing of the i!50 debt 
that remained on it, at the opening, they nobly came 
forward, and soon the debt was amono- the thini»s 
that were; and now it is free. The valuable gift of 
books, by the warm-hearted 3lr. (roodwille, will 
invoke the gratitude of the students for many a day. 



41 

TUNAPUNA. 

Bidding good-bye to Port of 8pain, we were soon 
on our way to Tunapuna, Travelling by railroad, 
we catch a glimpse of St. Joseph, the ancient capital «»f 
the island, and pass in sight of Tiicutche, the highest 
mountain in Trinidad, over 3,000 feet in height. On 
time we arrived at Tunapuna, beautiful for situation, 
some twelve miles from the city. It is situated at 
the base of the Northern range of mountains, with 
picturesque views on every side. The horse and 
phaeton were on hand to convey us to the manse. 
Dr. and Mrs. Morton, and Miss Morton, were wait- 
ing our arrival, and a right hearty welcome we re- 
ceived. Mr. William Morton accompanied us in the 
train from Port of Spain, where he is attending col- 
lege, having already succeeded in gaining scholar- 
ships. We were charmed with the hibiscus hedge, 
in full bloom, that surrounded the large grounds and 
garden, and shaded by large trees. What is that 
high tree close to the house, covered with bunches of 
green l)erries? They are gooseberi'ies, but not like 
those in Canada ; and these with dark smooth pointed 
leaves, thickly covered with white flowers? They 
are coffee trees. I may add that the coffee of this 
island is superior to many samples sent to the London 
market. The large bed of roses with many varieties, 
were faithfully tended by Miss ^Morton, and came to 
great perfection ; not the moss-rose, which is always 
a failure. We noticed with interest Mrs. Morton's 
scliool of Hindi girls, some thirteen or fourteen in 
number. The house is so constructed that the lower 
part supplies class rooms and dormitories for the 
pupils The girls have been taught to do all their 
own cooking in native Indian style, taking it ))y 



42 

turns. The dishes are mostly rice and tarkara, a 
savoury mixture of vegetables with salt fish, cocoa- 
nut oil, and hot with spices. Each girl is learning 
to make her own clothing, under the direction of 
Mrs. Morton and others. Religious instruction has 
occupied an important place in the school. The 
Hindi Bible-class, held five days in the Nveek, has 
been a great source of interest to the girls, and satis- 
faction to Mrs. Morton. They translate the Hindi 
into English. During the Friday evening prayer- 
meeting, nearly an hour is spent in answering Dr. 
Mf)rton's questions, and receiving instruction on the 
lessons for the week. We w^ere surpi'ised and pleased 
with their proficiency. Mr. Clark was asked to give 
an account of his trip to the Pacific Coast, over the 
Rockies. He did so, and Dr. Morton told the stu- 
dents to ask any questions on the subject. The first 
(question : " Was it not a very expensive trip ? " and 
being answered, he replied, "It was very good of Mr. 
Clark to take that long journey, and spend all that 
money, and then come down all the way to Trinidad 
to give them the knowledge about that new country, 
and the vast mountains". We happened to be in 
i'unapuna on Communion Sabbath, and enjoyed the 
service very much, though it was all in Hindi, 
except the table service, Mr. Clark conducted in 
English, but it was quickly interpreted by Dr. Mor- 
ton. We were pleased to see a number of Eun^p- 
eans at the service, though, like ourselves, they had 
not much knowledge of the language. The weird 
singing of the Hindus has a very solemn effect. 
Four or five of the Hindi girls (Marion among the 
number, named after a little girl many of us know 
in Truro), under the guidance of Miss ^Morton, were 
one morning busily engaged, preparing chocolate froiu 



43 

the cacat) beans. It was a novel sight to watch the 
proces^, from the outset to the end. Some of it was 
kindly handed to us, before leaving the hospitalile 
home of Dr. Morton ; and let me say, it is proclaimed 
to be, ''absolutely pure, and a delightful beverage for 
breakfast or supper". 



Tacarigua, Arouca, xVrima. 

During our stay we visited a number of the 
Mission Schools in that district, special mention 
should be made of Tacarigua school, under the 
care of Miss Blackaddar and her assistants — Miss 
B. is one of our earliest teachers and has done 
faithful and eflScient work. — We had a pleasant 
lime in her cosy home, looking at her curios and 
rare china gifts, she had received and from her Asi- 
atic pupils. Another day she took us out in her 
dog-cart, drawn by a pretty^ little pony, and felt 
proud to tell us that the dog-cart was made by 
one of her Hindi boys. We were much astonished 
at the density of the Asiatic population from Tu- 
napuna up to Arouca and indeed all the way to 
Arima. Here you see on the road, men and wo- 
men, young and old. going to the market, with 
their fowls and vegetables, in loaded baskets or 
trays on their heads, returning in the evening with 
the home supplies. And many men leading don- 
keys with the panniers loaded with charcoal, and 
other commodities for sale. Donkej^s and mules 
are very useful animals in that country, although 
it must be said of some, they go fast or slow, or 
not at all just as the tit takes him. We drive into 



44 

the coolie villagj, lined with plantain trees', flam- 
boyants, and iintumiliar s«brubs with large bright 
leaves. The dwelling houses are made of mud or 
bamboo, and thatched with palm loaves, half 
hidden by banana trees. Most of the men look 
tall, they are slender and small boned, but the 
limbs are well formed. Nearly all wear the same 
dress of India ; the thicklj" folded turban usually 
white, white drawers or 'kapra ' reaching but half 
way down the thigh, leaving the knees and the 
legs bare, and sometimes a white jacket. They 
are grave, talk in low tones, and seldom smile. 
Those you see with heavy black beards are proba- 
bly Mussulman^, I am told they have their mos- 
ques and that the muezzin's call to prayer, is 
chanted three times daily on many plantations. 
The Mohamedans allow the beard to grow. Very 
comely some ot the Hindi women are in their 
clinging soft, bright flowered dresses and veils, a 
costume leaving arms and ankles bare. Bright 
littH bronzy innocents, are playing about in natu- 
ral garb, one little garment would be a sign of re- 
ligion or civilization and would not add much to 
the heat of the day. A coolie mother passes, car- 
rying at her hip a ver}' pretty naked baby, its 
tiny ankles and wrists are circled by thin silver 
rings, it looks like a little bronze statuette. The 
mother's arras are covered from elbow to wrist 
with silver bracelets some flat and decorated. 
She has large flowers of gold in her ears, a large 
gold ring in her nose. This nose ornament does 
not seem absurd. Those who are well versed in 
the Hmdi Bible, tell us that Rebekah wore a ring 
"in the breathing place". This jewellery is pure 
metal ; it is thus the Hindus carry their savings, 



45 

melted down silver or gold coins, and recasting it 
into bracelets earrings and other ornaments The 
Presbyterian church at Aiiina is partly owned by 
the congregation of the Rev. J. Dickson and partly 
by our Mission, the \V. F. M. Society gave a hand- 
some donation, the church meets the requirements 
of both admirably. A present of a tine large har- 
monium, had just been received from friends in Bri- 
tain, The Rev. ^fr. Dickson has for man}- years 
ministered to the congregations of Arouca and Ari- 
ma. Long will we remember our lunch at Arima 
consisting of luscious oranges, biscuits and milk 
from the green cocoanut. But the countrj- : who 
can describe the charming everlasting hills, here, 
ever before us ? Those nearest are soft l}^ shaped 
and exquisitely green ; above them loftier undula- 
tions take hazier verdancy and darker shadows. 
Those who desire to paint a West Indian landscape, 
must take his view from some great height through 
which the colors come to the eye softened and 
subdued by distance, toned with blues or purples 
by the astonishing atmosphere. Xow we are 
approaching the clear sparkling waters of the 
Arima river, the rocky descent to the river is 
covered with large ferns, mosses and lichens. 
Leaving our carriage we advance slowly, we ai-e 
down in the shady valley wandering from spot to 
spot and lost in wonder, at the variety of gorgeous 
shrubs and dainty ferns. As we follow this shady 
path on the bank of the stream are patches of snow 
white lilies, falling in clusters from stems that rise 
about a foot from tufts of glossy green leaves. 
From the roots of some a delicious sago is prepared. 
We stood a while to watch the negro washer women 
busy at their washing, in the shallow places of the 



46 

river. It has a curious interest, this spectacle of 
primitive toil : the whiteness of the linen laid out 
to bleach upon the huge bowlders, or patches of 
grass in the sun. But we must leave this romantic 
spot, and take the road through Dabadie to the 
extensive nursery of Palms and principal plants of 
the tropical world, we were delighted and instruc- 
ted by the person in charge, taking us through 
the grounds and explaining the names and qualities 
of the manj^ pUmts, which in season would be for- 
warded to New York and Europe. Sundown 
approaches : we take the road homeward. The 
color of the heights is exquisite ! being a rich gol- 
den, and when reflected on the bright yellow blos- 
soms of the poui trees, on the sides of the mountains 
gives an imposing picture for the brush of an 
artist, or the color photography, recently disco- 
vered by Prof. Lippmann. 



CouvA. 



Off to Couva in the train; rolling over the 
Couva river we cross one of the longest iron 
bridges in the island. Mr. Levie kindly met us at 
the station and drove us to the Rev. A. M. Thomp- 
son's Manse. We received a kind christian wel- 
come from the very energetic missionary, Miss 
Fisher the lady teacher, and Mrs. Tomkins the 
pleasant house keeper. Couva is one of the finest 
agricultural sections for the production of sugar 
and cacao. The chief manager of Brechin Castle 
estate, Mr. Arbuckle sent his carriage and groom 
for us, to drive to the 13 sine, and we spent a 



47 

delightful day closely inrspoeting the manufacture 
of HUgar from the cane. Those were the first 
Vacuum Pan works erected in Trinidad, and the 
tine crystals made here, took the first prize at the 
local exhibition in 1886. "We inspected the pre- 
paration in making the Oocoanut oil, they told us 
that 1000 cocoanuts produced 14 gallons of oil — 
the fibre is chiefly applied in making mats and 
brushes. We had handed to us some specimens 
of native wood, as the leopard, poui and cedar, 
and spent a very agreable hour or tw^o in their 
lovely home on Brechin Castle estate. The school 
in Couva, taught by Miss Fisher and her assistants, 
is held in the old Manse formerly the home of the 
Hev. T. Christie and family. As we entered all 
the schools, we were pleased to notice, the respect 
of the B]ast Indian children, they all arose and 
made their salute, and said salaam. Good pro- 
gress is made by the children here, George jag- 
ganath, one of the teachers, recently a heathen 
but now a christian of high caste and well edu- 
cated in Hindustani, teaches the Hindi in school. 
It is very difficult to keep the heathen girls in 
school long enough to learn to read, the parents 
say "thej^ knovv enough for girls". The custom of 
India, is that the girls are practically sold by their 
fnthers, while yet children, to men generally 
much older than themselves. After the service 
on Sabbath we spoke to a number of the Hindi 
people, were pleased to hear the history of some, 
foi example Chumala a Hindi woman whose hus- 
band left her years ago, makes her living hoeing 
in the fields, at not more than 25cts. a day, but is 
always at her place in the house of God, with her 
weekly offering of Gets, for the support of the 



48 

Mission. Another remarkable woman, when in- 
dentured on the estate, began to read Hindi, had 
no help from teachers, except from her I'ollow 
workers, she made good progress and began to 
read and study the Bible, and now knows it well 
in all its subjects, she is now the wife of one of the 
catechists, and will doubtless be a great acquisition 
in teaching the Bible. We were surprised at the 
efforts of two little heathen boys, attending the 
school, who have to support a mother, brothers and 
sisters, they are verv anxious to learn but have to 
work in the tields to get bread; they go to" work very 
early in the morning, and do a part of the days task 
then come to school for three hours and go back 
and finish the task. They are briglit intelligent 
bovs. Rather more than six miles distance trom 
the railway station, we are in the land of the Cacao» 
It is hardly possible to have a sight more glorious 
than the ridge of the Montserrat hills when during 
the months of February and March the slopes are 
covered with the goi-geous mass of scarlet blossoms 
of the " bois immortel." The Roman Catholic 
Church, a commodious cedar building contains 
rather a novelty, a black image of the Virgin 
Mother. I believe at Montserrat in Spain, the 
church has a similar image. The view from the 
top of a high hill was a superb one taking in one 
grand sweep, Caroni, Couva, the town and peak of 
San Fernando, the gulf with its shipping, the Bocas, 
and the lofty Tucutche. 3,000 feet high making in 
all a vast panorama. Time would not give us more 
than a few days at Couva, after bidding adieu to 
our kind friends we took the train again for our 
old home in San Fernando. 



49 - 

La Brea. 

So called from a Spanish word meaning " pitch." 
.Under the guidance of Mr. Grant, we f<et off one 
morning, at 7 o'clock, to visit the Pitch Lake of 
La Brea; one of the wonders of the world! and 
about 20 milesdistant — Having secured a tine large 
mule and buggy, we were on our way, passing 
through a cultivated country, we met numbers of 
Mr. Grant's people on the road, all wishing us 
salaam, " peace be unto you " — One would stop and 
have a question to ask, another some grievance to 
tell about — When in sight of a cabin, the little 
children ran in to tell their mother that the Sahib 
Avas coming; the mother with her sick child was 
at the door waiting for advice and medicine, the 
required mixture was handed to her, an ' after 
inquiring for the aged and infirm, we drove on to the 
Eusilac school, — The children were reading the 
scripture lesson when we went in, they sang in 
Hindi some of our familiar hymns, after a few 
words to encourage them to go forward in their 
lessons and giving them God's blessing we resume 
our journey. — The Missionary has plenty of hard 
ministerial work in his lot employing all his time 
but he has the satisfaction of seeing his work 
greatly appreciated. After driving quickly past 
the swampy malarial district called the Oropouche 
Jjagoon, we come to tropical scenery again, rice 
fields mango trees and pine apple plantations. -Now 
we are close to the sea, away south, along the wes- 
tern coast, we have the Village in sight, before us 
are a large number of men daily employed ship- 
ping pitch. We may consider ourselves vwry 
fortunate tourists, inasmuch as Mr. McCarthy, 



50 

manager of the works, is an old friend of Mr. 
Clark's, from Shelburne, Nova Scotia. By ap})oint- 
ment he was ready to receive us at breakfast in his 
own home, after which he took us through the. 
work shops and boiling houses for the ])reparation 
of epure, and led us to the stables where more 
than 100 mules are kept for drawing out the carts 
of pitch from the lake to the shore. We watched 
the strong able negroes carr^'ing large baskets of 
this valuable article on their heads, througli the 
surf to load the lighters for the ships and steamers 
in the offing. Mr. McCarthy kindlj' placed at our 
service his own carriage, himself proceeding on a 
tine pony. The first half mile wrs a delightful 
drive over the smooth sand beach, to the lower 
landing, where a jetty is getting built to load the 
barges. Turning towards the Lake, not very far 
inland, we proceeded by the new road prepared by 
the Company, bordered by the cashew trees, and a 
great variety of other trees thatalfords the passer- 
by a refreshing shade from the scorching rays of 
the mid-day sun. Koi'tunatcly for us the day was 
not so hot, and the sky was overcast. Ascending 
a small incline, when suddenly you behold the 
Lake in all its strange beauty. This natural won- 
der occupies a surface of about one hundred acres 
188 feet above the sea level, and estimated to contain 
4,500.000 tons of asphalt. The New York Asphalt 
Paving Company gives £.'JO,OOU sterling u year to 
the government, for the use of their claims from 
which they took 80,000 tons of ])itch in the year 
1891. A surprising thing is the rapidity with 
which holes in the Lake are filled; if a few tons 
of asphalt are dug from any one place, twenty-four 
hours later the spot is again level with the other 



61 

parts. Several attempts have been recently made 
to ascertain its precise depth but all ineffectual. 
The pitch becomes hard alter being exposed on 
the surface for some time. It is dotted \>y small 
patches of mangroves forming tiny islets. These 
islets are the haunts of a small species of alligators 
that may be seen basking in the sun. In places 
here and there are fissures of clear water, narrow 
and shallow. In the centre of the Lake the pitch 
becomes softer, and there is a strong scent of 
sulphuric acid, with hissing and fuzzing out of 
salt, sulphurous water of dilTerent colours. As we 
come nearer the ''Source" we find ourselves almost 
imperceptibly sinking, we come as near as we 
dare, to this boiling pot, it is curious that none of 
it adheres to the boot, or on our fingers as we han- 
dle it. Having secured a specimen of it, we 
retrace our steps for terra firma. Many large 
towns and cities, both in Europeand America have 
streets j)aved with asphalt from this district. 
Leaving this source of wealth, we take the road 
leading to a large Oocoanut plantation of 9000 
palms. On the road homeward tall palms are on 
each side of us, for which this district is noted the 
Morichal j>aim being the loftiest. Night w\as upon 
us, our good mule was not so anxious to return as 
we were, he jogged on his own pace, took little 
heed of all our ))ersuasive pawers, of scolding and 
coaxing, stood still and moved on, just as he felt 
like it, he little cared for the laws of San Fernando 
that we would be fined if we entered the town after 
dark without lights. Arriving at a certain point, 
we saw a light approaching, it was faithful Bhup- 
Singh on the horse with a lantern coming to look 
for us, so we arrived home in safety, after a 



m 

thoroughly enjoyable day. This is really a land 
of wonders ! It has lakes of pitch ; oysters growing 
on trees, as we saw them, attached to the roots and 
branches of the Inangrove trees, growing near the 
shore ; crabs that mount on trees to obtain their 
living, as the soldier crab ; fish that give music, 
by blowing their own trumpet, as is the fact with 
the trumpet fish ; and another fish clad in a coat 
of mail, called the cascadou. 



Opening of two Churches. 

On Sabbath, the 21st March, Mr. Grant opened 
two small places of worship. For years he had 
a desire to occupy the ground in tw^o villages 
growing in importance, but did not wish to call 
on the church at home to provide the funds, but 
a couple of months ago, a sugar shed was offered 
for sale, containing a corrugated galvanized iron 
roof, suflScient for these small churches which 
he purchased cheaply, and on calling the villagers 
together, such was the readiness to aid, that he 
felt it to be his duty to go forward. — He reserved 
for Mr. Clark the honour of first lifting up his 
voice in these places of worship, but an attack of 
fever and ague kept him in bed all day. I repre- 
sented him, singing one or twoof our sweet gospel 
hymns, assisted by some present, who understood 
English. In the larger house, about 100 persons 
were seated, in the smallest 50. Rev. J. F. Coffin 
read in Hindi and Mr. Geddos Grant in English. 
Mr. Grant then preached in Hindi from 1 Tim 2-5. 
" There is one God and one Mediator " &c. He 
was followed by Rev. Lai Bihari in the same 



53 

language. The attention at both places was all 
that could be desired, quite as reverent as in our 
churches at home. When Mr. Grant reported 
that the amount received was far short of what 
was required a young Brahmin. Mahabir, (not 
a christian) a shop keeper in the place, who had 
given $10 said he would give ten more. At the 
close of the service in the smaller place, Marbella, 
a lad who had been taught a prayer by his Indian 
teacher (who composed it,) repeated it very well. 



Supporters of the Mission. 

A marked feature of the Mission in Trinidad, 
was the early, warm, liberal and sustained interest 
shown by the proprietors of the Sugar estates on 
which the East Indians labor. Chief among these 
are Sir Charles Tennant and Sons, J. Cumming & 
Co., Wm. Burnley & Co., the Colonial Company, 
Gregor Turnbull & Co-, J. Lamont, Esq. But as 
most of these proprietors (perhaps Mr. Cumming 
being the only exception) ^reside outside the Co- 
lony, it will be at once noticed how much the 
absentees must be influenced in their good opinion, 
by their attorneys and business men, under whose 
eyes the mission operations are carried on. 
Indeed looking at the environments of the Mission, 
the Missionaries may say " The lines have fallen 
unto us in ])leasant places." \Yhat is asserted of 
the planters, we think may be also said of the 
general community. The enthusiasm manifested 
at the opening of the new College in San Fernando 
as proof; and just now we are informed of liberal 



54 

donationa from the mercantile body that have 
fully paid olf every vestige of liability in con- 
nection with the premises. And rising from the 
general public, to the powers thai be, we are glad 
to know that from the inception of the Mission to 
the present time there has been growing interest 
on the part of the government to advance the 
educational part of the work. 



ASSISTANCE FROM THE CONVERTS. 

During our sojourn we have had frequent oppor- 
tunities of noticing the intelligent training that 
the young- men have received under Mr. Grant's 
special care. Honorable mention ought to be 
made of the very intelligent part they take in the 
Sabbath School, and prayer meetings as teachers 
and superintendents. Specially were we struck by 
the masterly way in which a young Chinaman Mr. 
Jacob W. Corsbie conducted the review in the 
Sabbath School, on more than one occasion, equal 
to any we have heard at home. So much were we 
impressed by his efficiency that w^e made some 
inquiries about the incidents of his life, and found 
that he was born in China, during the time of 
the great Civil war, or the Tai-ping Rebellion, 
that both of his parents were Chinese, he came to 
Trinidad just at the close of the war in 18G5. Being 
only then seven years of age, he was too young to 
remember much of the stormy period in China. 
In his very early years he had not much opportu- 
nity of going to school, as at eight years he had to 
work for his living. From the 3'ear 1872 he came 



55 



under in>tiuetion in the Mission School San Fer- 
nando, and made rapid ])rot!;resH. Mr. Grant on a 
visit to Canada in 187'> expressed his anxiety that 
Mr. Corsbie should receive a good training; and 
under the guidance of Miss M. A. Stark was led 
to the Rev. J. K. Smith, then pastor of Knox 
Church, Gait, whose congregation geiierously pro- 
vided the whole cost of his passage to and from 
Canada, and paid for two ^-ears course of instruc- 
tion under the famous Dr. Tassie, whose educa- 
tional work is so well remembered by many in 
Canada. It is very pleasant to note the sense of 
indebtedness which 5lr. Grant evidently cherishes 
to Miss Stark, under whose guidance he was led to 
make such favorable arrangements for his Chinese 
protege. Could the many friends in Knox congre- 
gation, Gait, really know the excellent work he 
has done as a teacher, and as a devoted christian 
worker in all this most interesting field, they 
would have no reason to regret their large hearted 
beneficence in helping forward this very worthy 
young man. 



Rev. Lal Bihiri. 

Our Mission which is firmly rooted in the rich 
soil of Trinidad, while ])lanted and watered by the 
faithful labors of our Canadian agents, has been 
greatly aided by the self denying intelligent ser- 
vices rendered by East India converts who not 
only accepted Christ themselves, but have sought 
to commend him to the acceptance of their fellow 
countrymen. We have met many of these 



56 

workers in the several districts and have been 
impressed with the importance of utilizing these 
humble faithful men, who not only understand 
the language, but the peculiar difficulties begotten 
by the belief and traditions of the ages, and how 
bent to dislodge them. And it may be said that 
on all hands, it is admitted that the Rev. Lai 
Bihari is like 'Saul among his brethren'. Let me 
speak especially of the noble aid Mr. Grant and 
his Mission have received from the very faithful 
efficient services of the Eev. Lai Bihari. This 
humble devoted minister of Christ was born near 
Arrah abont36 miles from the sacred city Benares, 
India. His father died when he was sixteen years 
of age. While his father lived he had good oppor- 
tunities of getting instructien : but at his death 
according to Hindi patriarchal custom, he was put 
under the over-sight of his uncle ; whose eldest 
son tyrannized over his cousin, especially scoffing 
at his religious feelings, which were strong and 
deep from his childhood. Such was the tyranny, 
he determined to escape from it, and left for Be- 
nares, where he heard that the government would 
continue to give him instruction, he being father- 
less, further he had heard that could he bathe at 
Benares during the eclipses, he would receive as a 
reward a thousand cows. He did not meet with 
any who could tell him how his education should 
be carried on, nor did he receive the above reward ; 
but he met a recruiting agent, who sought to 
enlist those who would go out to Trinidad to work 
amongst sugar, and such was his roseate des- 
cription of the service and its wages, that he con" 
eluded that by acceding to his terms, he could save 
money enough in three years in Trinidad to enable 



him to return and obtain at least four years in- 
stuction without any aid, and thus he purposed to 
fit himself to be a teacher. But it was with him 
as many others, that '• Man proposes but God dis- 
poses " and we find that instead of returning to 
India, he was to become the coadjutor of Mr. 
Grant, which position he has filled with great 
faithfulness for the past eighteen years. 



Grateful Acknowledgments. 

We thank all our very kind friends in Trinidad, 
for the attention they paid us, during our sojourn 
with them, and deeply regretted that we could not 
accept all the many invitations that we received 
before leaving. We will not forget the pleasant 
hours we spent at La Retrait, the residence of the 
Mayor, who for kindness and hospitality, stands 
unrivalled. Theirs is a charming villa, surrounded 
with lovely palms and ferns. Another delightful 
retreat 'Caledonia' a mansion replete, with every 
luxury', having extensive grounds to match, over 
looking the broad expanse of the gulf, and one or 
two other lovel}^ spots on an high eminence, 
where the varied and beautiful combination of 
trees and shrubs, and flowers peculiar to all clima- 
tes makes the picture one of perfection. The 
picturesque road leading to Mr. and Mrs. Geddes 
Grant's pretty home, first down in the vallej', then 
up a steep road, then round a curve, down and up, 
until we come to a fine avenue of trees, the cot- 
tage with its verandah taseeled with gorgeous 
mauve climbers, and the Quisqualis a shrub twenty 



58 

feet high with clusters of crimson, pink, and white 
bloBsoms. Behind is a grove of oranges, limes, 
and star apple, the cocoanut palms vvith bunches 
of nuts at the base of the towering plumes. We 
also thank Eev. and Mrs. Wilson for their kind 
attention, and many delightful drives they gave us. 
During our stay amidst such lovely scenes, we 
could not fail to enjoy the treat; our time was draw- 
ing to a close, when those ties of friendship would 
be severed Still although time and distance may 
separate us, there is a certain amount of satisfac- 
tion in looking back on the days spent here, with 
feelings of pleasure ; and I cannot refrain from 
saying that as regards those with whom we were 
on terms of friendship, in many parts of the 
Island, their goodness, cordiality, and noble 
generosity combined with that hospitality, w^hich 
makes a friend's house one's home, can never be 
forgotten. 



Our last Sabbath in the Island. 

After the Sabbath school exercises, we were 
requested to remain and take seats on the platform 
when a deputation came forward and modestly 
presented us with an address, written in English^ 
Tamil, Bengali, Hindi and Urdu expressive of our 
interest in the Asiatic people and wishing us a 
safe voj'age home, and every needed blessing. The 
communion service was held in the evening con- 
ducted by Mr. Clark, and assisted by the Missiona 
ries present. It was a very solemn touching 
service and when the large congregation stood up 



59 

to sing the last hymm ''God be \vi:h you till we 
meet again " it atfected iis all very much. Very 
busy packing the next day, the valuable souvenirs 
that were presented to us, such as the large famil}' 
Hindi pipe, the brazen vessels which they use, 
specimens of musical instruments. Sandal wood 
fan, richly carved in India, beautiful wrought, 
India dress, &c. Every one was so kind and eager 
to bring us some curiosity, good thoughful Bessie 
and Rachel were packing away tamarinds in a 
car ari, to go in a corner of ray trunk they said, Mrs. 
Grant had pots of granadillas and jelly, for corners, 
tl at were all taken up with sf^me thing else. Mia 
Lai Bihari's aged mother, come to bid us an affection- 
ate Jarewell, bringing us acuriosity in the shape of a 
large Hindi pipe. Bessie Girdharrie brought her 
handsome Indian silk Orhrnee, or veil, and the jul- 
lah. Mrs. Aaron a pair of silver bracelets made 
by the Indian jeweller, and sent a card conveying 
her compliments, written in fine penmanship. The 
saw of a Sawfish, caught in the Gulf of Paria, to 
be strapped on my trunk but found it far two long, 
and it was packed separately. Dear Claudia did 
not forget me, a fine handkerchief worked in India, 
nor Harriet and her three little darlings. What 
am I to do with the calabashes, the sugar cane and 
the vanilla beans ? must find space for them Mome 
where. Even old Dolly came with her gift, a small 
bottle of Castor Oil, made by her own hands, from 
the castor oil seeds, it looks very clear and good, 
but I put off the testing of its qualities from day 
to day. In the evening we had quite a Concert of 
Hindi music and singing, a number walked in four- 
teen miles from the country, bringing with them 
the drum, cymbals and conduli, for our special 



benefit. We had made a delightfully long stay, 
amongst such kind friends of whom it is a pleasure 
to speak. There was a goodness and cordiality 
with their hospitality and warm heartedness, that 
can never be forgotten by those who know them. 
The next morning all our friends in the compound 
and the school children were gathered around us 
to say " Farewell " as we entered the carriage 
with Mr. Grant who accompanied us to Port of 
Spain. Rev. E. A. McCurdy met us at the Station 
he told us the S. S. " Alps " was detained a day or 
two, and we made our home with Mr. and Mrs. 
McCurdy till the day of sailing. April 9th, we 
leave to-day, Mr. and Mrs. McCurdy and son, 
saw us on board the '' Alps." It was a lovely 
evening ! not a single breath disturbed the 
glassy surface of the silent water ; and yet how 
eloquently that silence spoke to the heart ! 
We can scarcely describe our feelings as we 
thought of our Missionaries and friends we were 
leaving behind us, and the wonderful work God has 
wrought by them, and our prayer to God is that 
they may bring the East Indian people in still 
larger numbers to Christ. 



Homeward Bound. 



Once more upon the sea, on our home voyage 
on board SS. 'Alps,' we quickly lose sight of the 
island, in all its luxuriance and beauty, robed 
from the rounded peaks, to the base in its peren- 
niel green ; and my mind dwelt on the thought 
that we were bidding it a long, long ^ Farewell.' 



61 

Before us are the Bocas, a huge rocky })romonlory, 
cut into four islands by the opposing forces of the 
Caribbean and the Orinocco; through the largest 
of the channels, called th Dragon's Mouth, we 
leave the Gulf of Paria — passing the peninsula of 
Paria a part of Venezuela, South America. The 
next morning we steam very slowly into the 
anchorage of St. George's Grenada. The harbor 
is a deep clear basin, surrounded and shadowed 
by immense volcanic hills, all green. On deck, 
the Creole women have spread their merchandise, 
necklaces of Mimosa beans, pots of Guava Jelly, 
and Tamarinds, all kinds of spices, and varieties of 
fruit — Mango, Sapodilla, Soursop, and Avocado 
pear. The Mango, looks like a large flattened 
apple, with an oval stone, the Sapodilla, has a 
peculiar appearance, some what like a russet 
apple, but larger, filled with a sugary brownish 

Eulp. At the core are several seeds, of a dark 
rown color, and having a narrow white fibre 
running along the inner edge. It is of this fibre 
that the incense used in the Eoman Catholic 
Churches in Spain is manufactured. Its odour is 
very sweet, and it brings a big price, it ought to 
be good and sweet — $160 per pound. The Avo- 
cada pear and Soursop does not create a desire for 
any more, — after the first taste — Land is hardly 
ever out of sight ; one island no sooner turns grey 
in the distance than another unwreathes itself, 
with a repetition of the waving palms and close 
ribbed hills, steeped in every shade of green which 
we have just left behind. — In these tropic latitudes 
night does not seem '' to fall ", it appears to rise 
up, like an exhalation from the ground. The coast 
line darkens first, — then the slopes and the lower 



62 

hills and valleys become shadowed, — then verj- 
swiftl}', the gloom mounts to the heights, whose very 
loftiest peak, may remain glowing like a volcano at 
its tip tor several minutes, after the rest of the 
island is veiled in blackness, and all the stars are out. 
Tropical nights have a splendor that seems strange 
to northern eyes. The sky does not look so high, 
— so far away as in the North, but the stars are 
larger, and the luminosity greater. Just a- 
bove the horizon, is the Gieat Southern Gross, the 
four stars, stand out large and clearly defined. Over 
the beautiful blue sea and under the charming blue 
sky, we make splendid progress. Nothing of note 
occurs except the occasional appearance of flying- 
fish, aiid a vast quantity of sargasso float by, a 
light J allow sea weed. The Captain procured a 
fine specimen, and had it placed in a bottle of sea 
water for me, I have it among my treasures. The 
passengers nine in number are seated on long 
lounging chairs under the white awning on the 
deck. We are all enjoying the warm weatiier 
while it lasts. The chief officer had a large black 
and yellow snake, about five or six feet long, in 
a box, and when he wanted to have a scamper on 
deck, among the passengers, he would let the sna- 
ke out, for a walk on the deck, he said it was not 
a poisonous reptile, and took hold of it by the 
neck, and gave it a drink of water out of a saucer. 
Below in the forecastle were large cages of mon- 
keys of ditferent species, many varieties of parrots 
and choice birds. — Each morning the air seems a 
liltle cooler, a gradual lengthening of the hours of 
light, is perceptible. When we came to the Gulf 
stream we found a great change in the weather, 
and the sea very much rougher, — it drove half of 



63 

the passengers to their berths for two days. The 
waves were not as high as I have seen the north 
Atlantic produce. Otf Cape Hatteras we met a 
strong gale, the waves sweeping the deck from 
stem to stern, and frequently dashing over the 
funnel. The next morning, April l.'^th, we found 
the storm had abated, and the surface of the ocean 
still undulating but glassy calm. We made good 
progress northward, and toward evening, the pilot, 
came on board and the next morning at seven, we 
were through with the medical health officer, and 
slowly wendi !g our way to the Union Docks, 
Brooklj-n. The custom house inspection over, we 
bade good-bye to the genial Captain, officers, and 
stewards, who anticipated all our wants and 
desires, and the excellent stewardess Mrs. Mc- 
Crombie, who was indefatigable in her attentions. 
Driving over the long Brooklyn bridge, and 
through the city of Now York, we came to the 
Grand Central Station, and took the first train for 
Ottawa, where we arrived the next day, just four 
months absent from our Canadian home. This 
trip has been one of great delight to us, and 1 
cannot conclude without expressing our thank- 
tulness, that ^ve have returned in safety, and fount! 
that our people have been so thoughtful in re- 
lieving us, from care and anxiety by keeping 
every thing running as if we had been in their 
midst, and that God had provided such efficient 
supply in our absence. 



64 



'• Much blessd by Providence is Trinidad ; 
Flowers and fruits perpetual, trees ever green, 
Our scenery most rich and beautiful ; 
The people of all nations, countries, races, 
French, English, Spanish, Scotch, or Portuguese, 
From Afric's or fair India's hotter shoies ; 
Creoles, Coolies, Chinese, their language, 
Manners, customs, every thing so different."